Electors are required to vote as pledged in 33 States & DC

According to the National Conference of State Legislatures, “Some states have passed laws that require their electors to vote as pledged. These laws may either impose a fine on an elector who fails to vote according to the statewide or district popular vote, or may disqualify an elector who violates his or her pledge and provide a replacement elector.”

Most of these laws, listed below, “require electors to vote for the candidate of the party that nominated the elector, or require the elector to sign a pledge to do so.”

1. Alabama (Ala. Code §17-14-31) 18. Mississippi (Miss. Code Ann. §208.46)
2. Alaska (Alaska Stat. §15.30.090) 19. Montana (Mont. Code Ann. §13-25-307)
3. Arizona (Ariz. Rev. Stat. §16-212) 20. Nebraska (Neb. Rev. Stat. §32-714)
4. California (Cal. Elec. Code §6906) 21. Nevada (Nev. Rev. Stat. §298.075)
5. Colorado (Colo. Rev. Stat. §1-4-304) 22. New Mexico (N.M. Stat. Ann. §1-15-9)
6. Connecticut (Conn. Gen. Stat. §9-176) 23. North Carolina (N.C. Gen. Stat. §163-212)
7. Delaware (Del. Code Ann. tit. 15, §4303(b)) 24. Ohio (Ohio Rev. Code §3505.40)
8. District of Columbia (D.C. Code §1-1001.08) 25. Oklahoma (Okla. Stat. tit.26 §10-102)
9. Florida (Fla. Stat. §103.021) 26. Oregon (Or. Rev. Stat. §248.355)
10. Hawaii (Haw. Rev. Stat. §14-28) 27. South Carolina (S.C. Code Ann. §7-19-80)
11. Indiana (Ind. Code §3-10-4-1.7) 28. Tennessee (Tenn. Code Ann. §2-15-104)
12. Iowa (Iowa Code §54.8) 29. Utah (Utah Code Ann. § 20A-13-304)
13. Maine (Me. Stat. tit.21-A, §805) 30. Vermont (Vt. Stat. Ann. §2732)
14. Maryland (Md. Code Ann. §8-505) 31. Virginia (Va. Code Ann. §24.2-203)
15. Massachusetts (Mass Gen. Laws ch.53, §8) 32. Washington (Wash. Rev. Code §29A.
16. Michigan (Mich. Comp. Laws §168.47) 33. Wisconsin (Wis. Stat. §7.75)
17. Minnesota (Minn. Stat. §208.46) 34. Wyoming (Wyo. Stat. Ann. §22-19-108)

According to NPR, 15 of these states have mechanisms by which they can remove, penalize, or cancel the votes of electors who do not vote as pledged: Michigan, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Indiana, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, Washington, California, New Mexico, South Carolina, Oklahoma and North Carolina.


Fair Vote, “Faithless Elector State Laws,” FairVote.org, July 7, 2020

National Conference of State Legislatures, “The Electoral College,” ncsl.org, Nov. 11, 2020

Nina Totenberg, “Supreme Court Rules State ‘Faithless Elector’ Laws Constitutional,” npr.org, July 6, 2020